The early decline in renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria predicts the risk of end-stage renal disease

The risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains high in patients with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria; however, little is known about the rate of decline in their renal function. To help determine this, we enrolled patients with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was normal (equal to or above 60?ml/min per 1.73?m2).

Using a minimum of five serial measurements of serum creatinine for 161 patients, we determined individual trajectories of eGFR change and the occurrence of ESRD during 5–18 years of follow-up. The rates were linear for 110 patients, for 24 the nonlinear rate was mild enough to satisfy a linear model, and the rates were clearly nonlinear for only 27 patients. Overall, in more than one-third of patients, the eGFR decline was less than 3.5?ml/min per 1.73?m2 per year and the lifetime risk of ESRD could be considered negligible. In the remainder of patients, eGFR declined with widely different slopes and ESRD developed within 2 to 18 years. Based on up to 5 years observation, when renal function was within the normal range, the estimates of early eGFR slope predicted the risk of ESRD during subsequent follow-up better than the baseline clinical characteristics of glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, or the albumin to creatinine ratio. Thus, the early slope of eGFR decline in patients with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria can be used to predict the risk of ESRD.

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Source: Kidney Int 82: 589-597; advance online publication, May 23, 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.189

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